Once glimpsed in a magazine with their story only briefly told, here is the full account of the famous family of Jewish dwarfs who survived the Holocaust because of their infirmities, despite Hitler’s ordering the “euthanizing” of even imperfect Aryans in Germany. Shimshon Ezick was the first dwarf to be born into his family. When his parents realized that he would never be strong enough to work in manual labor, they sent him to be highly educated. As a result,he became first a wedding badchan — an entertainer with a brilliant line of patter — and later, a rabbi and sage. Ezick married again after his first wife died, both times to women of normal height. He fathered 10 children, seven of whom were dwarfs. All of his children were bright and talented and were cautioned by their parents to always remain together. Those with full height helped their smaller, physically weaker siblings,and the sons-in-law were obliged to move in with the rest of the family. They became well-known, prosperous, popular entertainers throughout Central Europe.Insisting on being taken seriously, they acted in scripts written by Abram, the eldest dwarf brother, who had picked up his father’s skills when they traveled and acted together. Abram provided scenarios in which they did stand-up comedy set within stories. They also played their miniature instruments — violins, cellos, cymbals and drums. Instead of performing klezmer music, they sang love songs and popular hits that they learned from the radio. Skillful seamstresses, the women designed and sewed their own gorgeously flamboyant costumes, wore theatrical makeup, and had stylish hair styles, and always long polished nails. Though they were fairly oblivious to what was happening around them, Hitler finally brought it to their attention when the family was first sent to a ghetto and then deported to Aushwitz-Birkenau, a “family”camp. Knowing Mengele’s interest in twins,an alert guard held them until he could be found. Mengele was delighted with them and, from then on, protected them, albeit still performing his repetitive, painful experiment son them‚ such as excessive taking of blood and other procedures. He hoped they would help to make his reputation as a geneticist and actually seemed to relish their company. The dwarfs were also able to protect all the members of their family who traveled with them, and the family of their faithful assistant. Did they entertain for the Nazis? Other inmates say yes, but Perla, the youngest and longest survivor of the troupe,says they did not. It is to the authors’ credit that they researched everything written about this family, and also interviewed Perla extensively. The book provides an insight into Mengele’s obsession, mindset and aspirations. Index and sources.