The ProsenPeople

An Emphasis on Leaders

Friday, June 16, 2017 | Permalink

Menachem Z. Rosensaft, editor of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016, has been guest blogging for the Jewish Book Council this week as part of the Visiting Scribes series.

Our goal was for The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 to faithfully depict the contributions and achievements of the WJC’s leaders over the course of the past 80 years, including in addition to Ambassador Lauder the WJC’s founders Rabbi Stephen S. Wise and Dr. Nahum Goldmann, its longtime secretary-general Gerhart M. Riegner, and its president from 1981 to 2007, Edgar M. Bronfman.

In the interest of full disclosure, a brief personal note seems appropriate. I am not a totally disinterested observer of many of the events and individuals described in the pages of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016. My father, Josef Rosensaft, worked closely with many of the leaders of the WJC between 1945 and 1950 in his double capacity as chairman of the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in the British Zone of Germany and the Jewish Committee that administered the Bergen-Belsen Displaced Persons camp. During those years he developed what proved to be life-long friendships with Goldmann, Riegner, and numerous other other WJC leaders. As a result, I grew up knowing many of these WJC personalities and became aware of the organization’s activities in the international Jewish arena almost by osmosis. Decades later, I ran an international foundation for Ambassador Lauder from 1995 to 2000, and since 2009, as the WJC’s general counsel, I have worked closely with Ambassador Lauder, CEO Robert Singer, Secretary-General Emeritus Michael Schneider, Chief Program Officer Sonia Gomes de Mesquita, and the entire senior lay and professional WJC leadership.

Among the contributors to The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 who share their personal experiences and perspectives are Monsignor Pier Francesco Fumagalli, vice prefect of the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, who recalls the WJC’s pioneering role in crafting a new Catholic-Jewish relationship; Gregg J. Rickman, who led the US Senate Banking Committee’s examination of Swiss banks and their treatment of Holocaust-era assets during and after World War II and who depicts the WJC’s key role in forcing Swiss banks to disgorge more than one billion dollars they had wrongfully withheld from Jewish Holocaust victims and their heirs; Eli Rosenbaum, the longtime head of the US Justice Department’s Office of Special Investigations, who as my predecessor as the WJC’s general counsel oversaw the WJC’s exposure of Kurt Waldheim’s Nazi past; Natan Lerner, professor of law emeritus at IDC Herzliya, the director of the WJC’s Israel Branch from 1966 until 1984, who writes about the WJC’s relationship and interactions with the State of Israel; Evelyn Sommer, chairperson of the WJC’s North American Section, who was instrumental in the campaign to rescind the UN resolution equating Zionism with racism; and Maram Stern, the WJC’s deputy CEO for diplomacy, who reminisces about the complexities of attempting to maintain relations with Jewish communities in Communist countries during the Cold War years.

Other chapters in The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 are devoted to, among other topics, the invaluable assistance the WJC provided to the prosecutors at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, and the organization’s successful diplomatic negotiations on behalf of Jews from North Africa in the 1950s and 1960s. In the book’s concluding chapters, Ambassador Lauder lays out his vision of the Jewish future, and Robert Singer describes the activities and accomplishments of the World Jewish Congress today.

I am deeply honored that Ambassador Lauder and Robert Singer entrusted me with the task of compiling and editing this book, and am grateful to them for their constant encouragement and support. It is our hope that The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 will become an essential resource not just for an understanding of the World Jewish Congress, but for anyone interested in Jewish political history of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

Menachem Z. Rosensaft is General Counsel of the World Jewish Congress, and editor of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 (World Jewish Congress, 2017).

Header photo credited to The World Jewish Congress.

The First Political Body for Jews

Wednesday, June 14, 2017 | Permalink

Menachem Z. Rosensaft, editor of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016, will be guest blogging for the Jewish Book Council this week as part of the Visiting Scribes series.


In order to place the different essays that make up The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 in their historical context, it is important to understand the origins of the organization.

While the WJC formally came into being at its first plenary assembly in Geneva in August 1936, its roots actually lie in an ad hoc body called the Comité des Délégations Juives Auprès de la Conférence de la Paix – the Committee of Jewish Delegations at the Peace Conference – that was formed in 1919 to advocate at the Versailles Peace Conference for minority rights – that is, primarily, Jewish rights – in eastern and central European countries in the aftermath of World War I.

The Comité des Délégations Juives was an anomaly at the time in that it included representatives from Jewish groups in Canada, Eastern Galicia, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine, in addition to B’nai Brith and American Jewish organizations such as the newly founded American Jewish Congress and the 13-year old American Jewish Committee.

This was literally the first time that such an umbrella body representing at least a meaningful segment of world Jewry had come into existence.

The participation of the American Jewish Committee in the Comité des Délégations Juives was particularly noteworthy since it was otherwise categorically against any association with other Jewish groups in any endeavor that could be interpreted as an international Jewish politically oriented initiative, as opposed to one that was strictly American and philanthropic in nature.

Following the end of the Peace Conference, the Comité des Délégations Juives remained in existence under the leadership of a prominent Paris-based Russian Zionist named Leo Motzkin, and continued to make representations on behalf of Eastern European Jews before the League of Nations and other international bodies.

At the same time, throughout the 1920’s and early 1930’s, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, one of the founders of the American Jewish Congress, called for the establishment of a world Jewish Congress – over the fierce objections of the American Jewish establishment, in particular the American Jewish Committee.

In August of 1927, 60 delegates from the US, 12 other countries, and Mandatory Palestine gathered in Zurich for what was billed as the World’s Conference on Jewish Rights. Again, the purpose of this conference was to find some means of coordinating efforts to help Jewish minorities in central and eastern European countries where they were being discriminated against if not actively persecuted.

Wise continued his quest for a world Jewish congress over the next several years, as Hitler’s Nazi Party was becoming increasingly powerful in Germany.

In August of 1932, the first of three World Jewish Conferences took place in Geneva, this time with 94 delegates from 17 countries, but without the participation of the American Jewish Committee, the Board of Deputies of British Jews, or the Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden, the umbrella body of Germany’s Jewish community. By then, Wise had enlisted a young Russian-born German Zionist leader, Dr. Nahum Goldmann, to organize the event. It was the beginning of a friendship and political association between the two that would last until Wise’s death in 1949.

Two more such world conferences followed, both taking place in Geneva after Hitler’s rise to power.

By the third World Conference in 1934, Wise and Goldmann were planning the formation of a World Jewish Congress, modeled on the American Jewish Congress, as a mechanism to counter Nazi anti-Semitism, and in August of 1936, the WJC formally came into being as an organization.

This was the first time that Jewish leaders from different countries joined together as a decidedly political, rather than philanthropic, body, for the express purpose of representing Jews around the world. And over the following several years, the fledgling organization rapidly became the most outspoken defender of Jewish rights, both publicly and in behind-the-scenes diplomatic negotiations.

Menachem Z. Rosensaft is General Counsel of the World Jewish Congress, and editor of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 (World Jewish Congress, 2017). Check back on Friday to see more from Menachem Z. Rosensaft.

Header photo credited to the World Jewish Congress.

WJC: An Organization with a Personality

Monday, June 12, 2017 | Permalink

Menachem Z. Rosensaft, editor of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016, will be guest blogging for the Jewish Book Council this week as part of the Visiting Scribes series.


The World Jewish Congress has published a comprehensive history of our organization’s activities and achievements from its founding in Geneva in August 1936 to the present. Fittingly, we timed the release of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 to take place during the WJC’s 15th Plenary Assembly, April 23-25, held in New York for the first time in the organization’s eighty-year history.

Organizations, very much like individuals, have distinct personalities which are, for the most part, a direct function of the men and women who lead these groups. The World Jewish Congress is no exception.

About two years ago, when World Jewish Congress President Ronald S. Lauder and CEO Robert Singer first told me that they wanted to publish a history of the first eighty years of the World Jewish Congress, we rapidly came to the conclusion that such a book had to reflect the diversity of voices that has always characterized the organization and, indeed, the Jewish people. Instead of asking a historian to write an academic, chronological study based primarily on archival research, we opted instead for a mosaic, with chapters about specific episodes or themes written either by individuals who had personally played a role in the WJC’s activities and accomplishments in question, or by scholars with a particular interest in and knowledge of the subject matter.

For the past ten years, the WJC’s persona has been shaped primarily by Ambassador Lauder who has imbued the organization with his vision and with a distinct sense of purpose focusing on the challenges confronting the Jewish people and Jewish communities across the globe in the 21st century. Prior to assuming the presidency of the WJC in 2007, Ambassador Lauder had a distinguished career first as US Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for European and NATO Affairs and US Ambassador to Austria under President Reagan, and then as chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish Organizations and president of the Jewish National Fund. In 1987, he established the Ronald S. Lauder Foundation which revitalized Jewish life in Eastern and Central Europe through a network of Jewish schools, kindergartens, camps and community centers.

“There is an old Hasidic tradition,” Ambassador Lauder writes in the concluding chapter of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016, “that inside every Jew there burns a flame. Sometimes that flame is obscured, and the person can’t see it. But it is always there, it is always burning. All you have to do is dust it off your heart and you will find it. . . . And this is the job before us now. We have to help our children and our grandchildren dust off their hearts. We have to help them rediscover that Jewish flame inside them.”

The WJC today also reflects the personality and priorities of Robert Singer, the organization’s CEO since May 2013, who had previously served as senior educational officer of the Israel Defense Forces, followed by twelve years with the Office of the Prime Minister in Israel in a number of senior posts, mostly dealing with the Jewish communities in the former Soviet Union, and fourteen years as the CEO of World ORT, one of the world’s largest non-governmental education and training network. Under Robert Singer’s professional leadership, the WJC has undertaken numerous major initiatives in fighting both anti-Semitism around the world and the ever-increasing efforts to delegitimize the State of Israel.

Menachem Z. Rosensaft is General Counsel of the World Jewish Congress, and editor of The World Jewish Congress, 1936-2016 (World Jewish Congress, 2017). Check back on Wednesday to see more from Menachem Z. Rosensaft.

Header image credited to the World Jewish Congress.

Auschwitz-Birkenau, January 27, 2015: A Poem

Friday, January 30, 2015 | Permalink

During this past week's ceremony at Auschwitz to mark the 70th anniversary of its liberation, Menachem Z. Rosensaft penned a poem to commemorate the memorial, which he shares with JBC readers below.

Auschwitz-Birkenau, January 27, 2015

no longer visible flames
still burn
will always burn
have burned my brother's tiny body
for seventy-one years
five months, twenty-three days
since he became only a memory
my, our mother's memory
now my inheritance
in a huge tent we sit
three thousand of us
warmly dressed
and I see where
my mother was unable to kiss
her child
one last time
I cannot feel him shiver
I cannot hear him cry
I cannot smell the gas
perhaps I am breathing
his ashes

Menachem Z. Rosensaft is the editor of the recently published book God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes: Reflections of Children and Grandchildren of Holocaust Survivors (Jewish Lights Publishing).

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Interview with Menachem Z. Rosensaft

Monday, January 26, 2015 | Permalink

by Nat Bernstein

Menachem Z. Rosensaft is the editor of the recently published God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes: Reflections of Children and Grandchildren of Holocaust Survivors (Jewish Lights Publishing). Jewish Book Council had the opportunity to discuss his book with him and learn more about his process.

Nat Bernstein: I’m interested in the process of making this book, particularly because you included such a wide range of writers. How did you select and seek out contributors? Did you approach each one with a specific theme, or did you organize all of the essays into the four parts of God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes after collecting the entire body of writing?

Menachem Z. Rosensaft: One of my principal goals was to have as broad and diverse a representation of children and grandchildren of survivors, known in shorthand as 2Gs and 3Gs—religiously, politically, professionally, geographically, etc.—as possible. And I wanted each to be accomplished and recognized in his or her chosen field. Of course, I have known many of those whom I invited to contribute to the book for a long time, some for decades, but there are also a large number whom I knew only by reputation. In addition, numerous friends and colleagues generously gave of their time and made recommendations.

It was extremely important to me that the book should not be seen as having an agenda, as it were. Since 2Gs and 3Gs are not in any way a politically, theologically, or intellectually homogeneous group, the book had to reflect all our views, beliefs and perspectives. In my letter inviting 2Gs and 3Gs to participate in this project, I made clear that the book was not meant to have an introspective or psycho-social focus, asking each of them to write about how their respective knowledge of their parents’ or grandparents’ experiences during and after the Shoah have shaped their lives, thoughts and careers. The book, most simply put, was meant to reflect what we believe, who we are, and how that informs what we are doing.

I had no idea at the outset what the essays for would be like, and I did not want to influence or predetermine what the different contributors would write; I therefore gave them a great deal of leeway. For example, I expected the Rabbis in the book to emphasize issues of faith, and most but not all did so. At the same time, equally profound and poignant religious points were made by 2Gs and 3Gs who are not trained or ordained theologians.

NLB: What has the response been since the book’s publication? Did you have an objective in mind when you set out to compile God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes, and if so do you feel that it has been met?

MZR: The response has been extraordinary and, most gratifying to me, uniformly positive. I wanted the book to convey an image—which I believe to be an accurate one—of 2Gs and 3Gs not as somehow traumatized or weighed down by our identity and heritage, but rather as a collective of creative, highly intelligent, often brilliant, in many cases iconoclastic individuals endowed with a balanced, forward-looking view of the world and our different roles within it. I also want readers of the book to come away with an understanding and appreciation that who we are is a direct result and reflection of who our parents and grandparents were or are. I think it’s clear that almost without exception, the contributors to God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes see our parents or grandparents as role models and sources of strength, and that our accomplishments are a tribute to them.

I want the book to be read widely not just by members of the Jewish community but also by non-Jews, and it is my fervent hope that it will comfort and inspire the victims and descendants of victims of other genocides and atrocities. After all, if the survivors could emerge from the horrors of the Shoah 70 years ago and, instead of turning their back on humankind—something they would have had every right to do—chose to rebuild their lives in new, not always welcoming surroundings and to start new families, and that we, their children and grandchildren, consider their legacy to be not a burden but a hallowed birthright , then there is no reason why the victims and the descendants of victims of genocides in Rwanda, Bosnia or Darfur, or of atrocities in Syria or elsewhere, cannot do so as well.

NLB: Is there a voice or perspective missing from this collection? Whether by intention or by happenstance, do you feel that there are narratives that didn’t make into the book?

MZR: Unfortunately, the book—like all books—had a length limitation, which meant that I could not include all the 2Gs and 3Gs I wanted to include. For each contributor whose essay is in the book, there are many whom I simply could not invite because of this space limitation. Also, Stuart Matlins, the editor in chief and publisher of Jewish Lights Publishing, and I worked very closely together to have as much balance in the book as possible, and not to have any one perspective—again, whether religious, political, geographic, or professional—overshadow the others. We also had to limit the number of contributors from any one field—academics, novelists, judges, physicians, reporters, psychologists, political activists, etc.—and to make sure that we had a broad geographic distribution. As a result, I regret that I simply could not invite many talented and interesting individuals whose narratives would have been extremely significant.

NLB: What did you learn from and through working on this project? Has the process been what you expected?

MZR: Reading the essays confirmed that the 2Gs and 3Gs are as diverse and as multi-dimensional as their parents and grandparents. It is important to bear in mind at all times that the common stereotype of the victims of the Shoah—both the dead and its survivors—while not inaccurate, conveys only part of the picture. The popular images of the murdered Six Million include a mother or father comforting a child on their way into a gas chamber, rabbis and devout Jews praying in ghettos and death camps, the idealistic Anne Frank in her hiding place before she and her family were betrayed and taken to Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen, and heroic partisans or ghetto resistance fighters. And they all, of course, were there in what Alexander Donat called the “Holocaust Kingdom.” But so were Zionists from Bialystok, Jewish socialists from Budapest and Jewish Communist from Brussels, as well as Jewish shop owners from Warsaw, Jewish intellectuals and artists from Paris, the assimilated Jewish industrialist from Berlin, the Jewish entertainer from Vienna, the Jewish diamond cutter from Antwerp, and the Jewish boxer from Amsterdam. As is clear from the essays in God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes, the children and grandchildren of the survivors are just as heterogeneous. One unexpected dimension of the essays turned out to be the absence of redundancy. While there are common themes, each of the contributors to the book carved out an individual niche for herself or himself with the result that the book is, I believe, a mosaic in which each element is an integral and essential part of the whole.

NLB: If you were to add a fifth section to God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes, what would it be? Who, according to your vision, would be included in it?

MZR: This might be counter-intuitive, but there are those 2Gs and 3Gs who do not identify with or speak about this aspect of their identity—or who consciously or subconsciously do not consider their parents’ or grandparents’ Holocaust experiences and memories to be a contributing factor in who they are. Thus, for example, even though Billy Joel is the son of a German-Jewish refugee, he has never, to the best of my knowledge, made any attempt to even acknowledge Holocaust memory in his lyrics. His one “social consciousness” song, We Didn’t Start the Fire, merely sandwiches Eichmann, without commentary, between Hemingway and Robert Heinlein’s sci-fi novel, Strangers in a Strange Land, among the personalities and events that Joel sees as epitomizing the second half of the twentieth century. It would be fascinating, I think, to engage with him and others in whose lives a legacy of Holocaust memories seems not to play a decisive role in a dialogue.

NLB: What are you working on next?

MZR: I primarily have to devote my time to and concentrate my energies on my responsibilities as General Counsel of the World Jewish Congress and on my classes and students at Columbia Law School and Cornell Law School. Having said this, my to-do List includes a book based on my lectures and the assigned readings for my courses on the law of genocide and war crimes trials, a volume of the poems I have written over the years, and, eventually, a collection of my essays and articles about controversies I have been involved in and issues I considered significant enough to write about.

Nat Bernstein is the JBC Network Coordinator at the Jewish Book Council and a graduate of Hampshire College.

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Preserving the Mystery

Wednesday, January 14, 2015 | Permalink

Earlier this week, Menachem Z. Rosensaft wrote about life after catastrophe. He is the editor of the newly published God, Faith & Identity from the Ashes: Reflections of Children and Grandchildren of Holocaust Survivors (Jewish Lights Publishing) and will be blogging here all week for Jewish Book Council's Visiting Scribe series.

Almost 20 years ago, I wrote an article about Holocaust remembrance entitled “Preserving the Mystery” for the Forward. It was published there on April 28, 1995. I had all but forgotten it, but happened to reread it recently and was struck by its – to me at least – continued relevance and validity. My concerns 70 years after the Holocaust remain much the same as they were on the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. And since I am quite certain that no one else will recall it, I decided to republish it here.

Fifty years after the Holocaust, our perspective on the past is undergoing a subtle yet perceptible transformation. Time has not diminished our grief. Our questions, whether addressed to God or to humankind, remain unanswered. But somehow, our horror and outrage seem to have eased, if not lessened. Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Bergen-Belsen, Babi Yar, the Warsaw Ghetto. Gas chambers, selections, partisans, yellow stars of David, crematoria, mass-graves. Names, terms and concepts that entered our vocabulary in a dramatic explosion of emotion have become almost too familiar. The sense of awe that once characterized even the most oblique reference to the annihilation of European Jewry has evolved into standardized, often impersonal reactions.

Not too long ago, the study of the Holocaust was the domain of an isolated few, most of whom saw their task as a solemn obligation to the dead. Now, historical accounts and memoirs devoted to this cataclysm, better ones, worse ones, are published regularly. Steven Spielberg's monumental motion picture, "Schindler's List," has made the subject truly fashionable, even trendy. Then there are the countless lectures, courses, sermons, articles. Life in the ghettos, faith in the camps, hidden children, love in the shadow of death, accusations of collaboration with the enemy, death marches, watching loved ones disappear forever, emotional reunions in displaced persons camps, survivors coming to terms with their loss, post-Holocaust trauma. No aspect of the Holocaust is left untouched, undissected.

While many of these works are important and factually accurate contributions to the historical record, others are flawed in a variety of ways. In a desire for drama, an author will occasionally expand on the truth. A minor participant in an uprising may be tempted, in writing his memoirs, to embellish his own role. A publisher, seeking to enhance a forthcoming book's appeal, may urge the writer to add some romance to an otherwise colorless episode. A less than meticulous historian may transpose a given occurrence from Auschwitz to Treblinka in order to streamline a particular argument.

As much as any other event, if not more so, the Holocaust requires the chronicler to be scrupulously accurate. The historian who misrepresents it commits a greater transgression than one who shuns the topic altogether. The witness who testifies falsely, who distorts his or her experiences in any manner for even the most benign reason, effectively becomes the accomplice of those who try to deny that the Holocaust ever took place.

This is not to suggest that the current widespread interest in the Shoah is not welcome. But the greater the popularity of this subject, the greater the need for vigilance regarding the treatment it is accorded.

In Washington, D.C., the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum brings the full magnitude and complexity of the Holocaust into the consciousness of thousands upon thousands of Americans every single week. More than 4 million visitors have been to the museum since its opening two years ago. Most of them are non-Jews. Who among us could have predicted 20 or 30 years ago that American public schools and church groups would make reservations months in advance to visit a Holocaust museum? Who among us could have predicted 20 or 30 years ago that serious scholars would make Holocaust studies a respected academic discipline?

Why, then, is there also a sense of unease? Why am I, for one, not altogether comfortable with the popular appeal that the Holocaust has acquired? Perhaps because the experience must not be allowed to lose its aura of mystery. Objective, cognitive analysis alone is insufficient. As my friend and mentor Elie Wiesel has written, “Auschwitz signifies not only the failure of two thousand years of Christian civilization, but also the defeat of the intellect that wants to find a Meaning—with a capital M—in history. What Auschwitz embodied had none.”

The Holocaust transcends ordinary human experience. It is the unprecedented, the unfathomable, and, above all, the inexplicable. Sober chronologies of dates, events and statistics are critical to our understanding but provide only one dimension. Histories of the Holocaust based exclusively or even primarily on German documents convey the intent and actions of the perpetrators but do not adequately reflect the experiences of the victims. Thus, ghetto diaries, underground newspapers and survivors' recollections are essential to any comprehensive narrative. And no one can penetrate the nocturnal universe of Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen without absorbing songs, poems, nightmares and prayers that defy all standard historiographic methodology.

A barrack wall at Auschwitz contains the following inscription: “Andreas Rapaport—lived sixteen years.” Try to imagine this boy, realizing that he was about to die, as he tried to leave a sign, a memory of his existence on earth. In truth, Andreas Rapaport was the author of his own eulogy: Andreas Rapaport—lived sixteen years. Andreas Rapaport—abandoned, alone, afraid. Andreas Rapaport—hungry, in pain. Andreas Rapaport—with gas-filled lungs. Andreas Rapaport—burning flesh in the crematorium, black smoke, ashes.

With the passing of time, our mental pictures go out of focus, our collective memories become blurred. We all have memories, even we who were born afterwards. And they were once fresh. When my father told me how he was shot by the Germans while escaping from a moving train bound for Auschwitz, when he told me how his 80-year-old father died in his arms, when he told me how he was tortured in Auschwitz, every one of his experiences was sharply recorded in my mind. He died almost 20 years ago. And I no longer remember his words as clearly as I once did.

We all have memories of when we first realized the enormity of Hitler's Final Solution of the Jewish question, of the first time we tried to imagine members of our own families gasping for air in a gas chamber. But the years have mellowed our reactions. It used to be that we could not sleep for days after seeing a film about the Holocaust. Now, such films are shown on television late at night and no longer have the same impact.

As our knowledge of the Holocaust steadily increases, we must be careful not to become desensitized. As we perpetuate memory, we must also prevent it from becoming commonplace. There are times when even scholars must abandon their dispassion. Remembrance without emotion is hollow, and the dead deserve our anguish.

Menachem Z. Rosensaft is General Counsel of the World Jewish Congress. He teaches about the law of genocide at the law schools of Columbia and Cornell Universities.

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